Alto Paraiso de Goias, a municipality in North Eastern Goias, Brazil, has seen its second case of yellow fever in 2015. The first case was that of a foreigner who was passing by Alto Paraiso when he came down with the infection and received subsequent treatment at Rio de Janeiro. This second case arose in the very same municipality.
Brazil has not seen an urban cycle of the disease since 1942 and this latter case was also identified to have been acquired in a sylvatic environment, although no history of epizootic infection in animals of that are available.
Considering that routine vaccination with yellow fever vaccine has long since been discontinued in this area, it is highly likely that it would lead to an explosive epidemic if the unimmunized people were to be exposed to the disease agent. Moreover, the presence of mosquito vectors for the disease makes it an ideal setting for the outbreak to expand and explode.