Menage-a-Trois

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Ah! Got you there, didn’t I?

They say when trouble comes, it comes in threes. For example, this month, I have three soul crushing, morale destroying, confidence pulverizing examinations lined up one after the other. (That might explain this post!)

Anyways, so I was reading a lot of clinical buzzwords and stuff and I realized that one of the most important things is clinical triads, and there are tons of them. So, I decided to make a neat little list of the eponymous clinical triads only.

Here goes:

Anderson’s Triad: Cystic Fibrosis:Bronchiectasis/Cystic Fibrosis
Celiac Disease
Vitamin A deficiency

Atta’s Triad: Bilharzial Dysentery:Bleeding per rectum
Polyposis
Clubbing
Austrian triad:Pneumococcal pneumonia
Meningitis
Endocarditis (classically aortic valve endocarditis associated with aortic regurgitation)

Beck’s Triad: Cardiac Tamponade:Muffled Heart Sounds
Distended Neck Veins
Hypotension

Beck’s Cognitive Triad: Depression:Negative thoughts about
–  The self (i.e., self is worthless)
– The world/environment (i.e., world is unfair)
– The future (i.e., future is hopeless)

Borchardt’s Triad: Acute gastric volvulus:Vomiting, followed by retching and then an inability to vomit
Epigastric pain and distension
Inability to pass a nasogastric tube
Bergman’s Triad: Fat emboli syndrome:Depressed sensorium
Axillary/thoracic petechiae
Dyspnea

Bezold’s Triad: Otosclerosis:Failing or diminished perception of deeper tones
Retarded bone conduction
Negative Rinne’s test

Carney’s Triad:Gastric Leiomyosarcoma
Pulmonary Chondroma
Extra-adrenal Paraganglioma

Charcot’s Triad: Cholangitis:

Pain in right upper quadrant of the abdomen
Fever
Jaundice
Charcot’s Triad: Multiple Sclerosis:Intention tremor
Dysarthria (Scanning or staccato speech)
Nystagmus

Currarino Triad:Sacral dysgenesis
Pre-sacral mass
Anal or rectal malformations
Cushing’s Triad: Raised Intracranial Pressure:Elevated systolic blood pressure
Bradycardia
Irregular respiration

Dieulafoy’s Triad: Acute Appendicitis (Defense Musculaire):Hypersensitivity of the skin
Tenderness
Muscular contraction at McBurney’s Point

Female Athlete’s Triad (Not eponymous per se):Eating disorders
Amenorrhea/Oligomenorrhea
Osteoporosis

Gradenigo’s Triad: Petrositis:VIth Cranial nerve palsy causing ipsilateral squint and diplopia
Persistent Otorrhea
Ipsilateral deep seated retro orbital pain due to irritation of Trigeminal nerve

Greg’s Triad: Congenital Rubella:Sensorineural deafness
Retinopathy/Cataract/Microphthalmia
Patent ductus arteriosus
Horner’s Triad: Pancoast Tumor (amongst many others):
Miosis
Ptosis
Enopthalmos
Hutchinson’s Triad: Congenital syphilis:

Interstitial keratitis
Hutchinson’s incisors
VIIIth nerve deafness
Kartagener’s Triad: Ciliary akinesia:Situs inversus
Abnormal frontal sinuses producing sinusitis and bronchiectasis
Immobility of cilia
Luciani’s Triad: Cerebellar diseases:Hypotonia
Weakness of muscles
Ataxia

MacDonald’s Triad: Sociopathic personality disorderEneuresis
Arson/Pyromania
Animal Torture

Meckler’s Triad: Boerhaave’s Syndrome or Esophageal rupture: Vomiting
Acute lower chest pain
Subcutaneous emphysema
Meltzer’s Triad: Cryoglobulinemia:Palpable purpura
Arthralgia
Myalgia/Muscular Weakness

Morton’s Triad:Congenital short and hypertrophied forst metatarsal bone with tenderness over it
Hypermobile first metatarsal segment
Callosities under the second and third metatarsal segments

O’ Donoghue’s Triad: Twisted Knee Injury:Coincidemce of Anterior Cruciate injury, Medial collateral injury and Meniscal tear
Quincke’s Triad: Hepatic Artery Aneurysm:Epigastric pain
Hemobilia
Obstructive Jaundice

Reiter’s Triad:
Urethritis
Arthritis
Conjunctivitis/Uveitis
Reynold’s Pentad: Ascending Cholangitis:Right Upper Quadrant Pain
Fever
Jaundice
(Charcot’s Triad)
Hypotension
Altered mental status

Rigler’s Triad: Gallstone Ileus:

Ectopic gallstone
Partial or complete bowel obstruction
Pneumobilia
Saint’s Triad: Exemplifies Hickam’s Dictum (opposite of Occam’s Razor):Cholelithiasis
Hiatal Hernia
Diverticular Disease

Samter’s Triad (aka Widal-Abrami-Lermoyez Triad): Aspirin Induced Asthma:Aspirin sensitivity
Nasal or ethmoidal polyps
Bronchial asthma
Sandblom’s Triad: Traumatic hemobilia:Gastrointestinal bleeding
Biliary colic
Jaundice

Souques’ Triad: Parkinsonism:Elevation and extension of paretic arm results in involuntary extension of fingers
Tipping the chair back while a Parkinsonism patient is seated on it will not result in extension of limbs to maintain balance due to loss of associated movements
Violent over exertion may occur when a Parkinsonism patient attempts to run owing to rigidity

Trotter’s Triad: Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma:Unilateral conductive hearing loss
Ipsilateral otalgia and facial pain due to Trigeminal nerve involvement
Ipsilateral paralysis of the soft palate
Virchow’s Triad: Venous Thrombosis:Hypercoagulability
Venous stasis
Endothelial injury
Vogt’s triad: Tuberous Sclerosis:Epilepsy
Mental retardation
Facial angiofibroma (adenoma sebaceum previously)

Vogt’s Triad: Glaucoma/Buphthalmos:Blepharospasm
Lacrimation
Photophobia
Vogt’s Triad: Congenital Toxoplasmosis:Congenital cataract
Chorioretinitis
Cerebral calcifications
Vogt’s triad: Post Congestive Glaucoma:Glaucomfleckens (Anterior cortical opacity)
Iris stromal atrophy
Pigment on corneal epithelium

Waddell’s Triad: Pediatric Pedestrian in a Road Traffic Accident:Head trauma
Thoracic and/or abdominal trauma
Femoral fracture

Whipple’s Triad: Attack of TRUE Hypoglycemia (Insulinoma):Symptoms and signs known or likely to be caused by hypoglycemia
Low plasma glucose (<45 mg/dl or 2.5 mmol/lit)
Relief of symptoms with administration of glucose to raise plasma glucose levels to normal

menage

UPDATE: Since a few people expressed their interest in taking a print of this page and told me that the wordpress.com print option rendered the page in a rather ugly fashion, I uploaded the PDF I made for myself. Download it here.

 

 

Skeptic Oslerphile, Scientist at the Indian Council of Medical Research, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases. Interests include: Emerging Infections, Public Health, Antimicrobial Resistance, One Health and Zoonoses, Diarrheal Diseases, Medical Education, Medical History, Open Access, Healthcare Social Media and Health2.0. Opinions are my own!

0 Comments

    • Thanks. I was going for the shock and awe effect with the title! Guess it worked! 😛 And anyways this title is way cooler than “Laundry List of Eponymous Clinical Triads That Might Be Important for Your Examinations”! Glad you liked it!

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